The canton of Glarus is the only canton besides Appenzell-Innerrhoden with a cantonal assembly. Once a year, on the first Sunday in May, all Glarner residents with voting rights assemble on the Zaunplatz in Glarus. There they decide on constitutional and legislative matters, fix the tax rate, and vote on important issues. They also elect the chief of the executive council, the governor, the judges and the public prosecutor.

The cantonal parliament is the parliament of the canton of Glarus. Its 60 members are in charge of government, administration and the judiciary and prepare the resolutions of the cantonal assembly. The cantonal parliament has no independent legislative powers; these lie only with the cantonal assembly.

The governing council, as the highest executive authority, includes the chief of the executive council, the governor and three members. They represent the canton within and without, maintain contacts on the federal and cantonal level, implement measures and coordinate administrative tasks.

The canton is represented in the federal parliament by national councillor and two council members.